**PHYSICS**

**GENERAL OBJECTIVES**

**The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Physics is to prepare the candidates for the Board's examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:**

**(1) sustain their interest in physics;**

**(2) develop attitude relevant to physics that encourage accuracy, precision and objectivity;**

**(3) interpret physical phenomena, laws, definitions, concepts and other theories;**

**(4) demonstrate the ability to solve correctly physics problems using relevant theories and concepts.**

**DETAILED SYLLABUS**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**1. MEASUREMENTS AND UNITS**

**(a)Length area and volume:**

**Metre rule, Venier calipers**

**Micrometer Screw-guage**

**(b)Mass**

**(i) unit of mass**

**(ii) use of simple beam balance**

**(c) Time**

**(i) unit of time**

**(ii) time-measuring devices**

**(d) Fundamental physical quantities**

**(e)Derived physical quantities and their units**

**(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of**

**their units**

**(f) Dimensions**

**(i) definition of dimensions**

**(ii) simple examples**

**(g)Limitations of experimental measurements**

**(ii) accuracy of measuring instruments**

**(iii) simple estimation of errors.**

**(iv) significant figures.**

**(v) standard form.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. identify the units of length area and volume;**

**ii. use different measuring instruments;**

**iii. determine the lengths, surface areas and volume of regular and irregular bodies;**

**iv. identify the unit of mass;**

**v. use simple beam balance, e.g Buchart's balance and chemical balance;**

**vi. identify the unit of time;**

**vii. use different time-measuring devices;**

**viii. relate the fundamental physical quantities to their units;**

**ix. deduce the units of derived physical quantities;**

**x. Determine the dimensions of physical quantities;**

**xi. use the dimensions to determine the units of physical quantities;**

**xii. test the homogeneity of an equation;**

**xiii. determine the accuracy of measuring instruments:**

**xiv. estimate simple errors;**

**xv. express measurements in standard form.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**2. Scalars and Vectors**

**(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities**

**(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities**

**(iii) relative velocity**

**(iv) resolution of vectors into two Perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. distinguish between scalar and vector quantities;**

**ii. give examples of scalar and vector quantities;**

**iii. determine the resultant of two or more vectors;**

**iv. determine relative velocity;**

**v. resolve vectors into two perpendicular components;**

**vi. use graphical methods to solve vector problems;**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**3. Motion**

**(a) Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random**

**(b) linear motion**

**(i) speed, velocity and aceleration**

**(ii)equations of uniformly accelerated motion**

**(iii) motion under gravity**

**(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph**

**(v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration.**

**(c) Projectiles:**

**(i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of flight**

**(ii)applications of projectile motion**

**(d) Newton's laws of motion: .**

**(i) inertia, mass and force**

**(ii) relationship between mass and acceleration**

**(iii) impulse and momentum**

**(iv) conservation of linear momentum (Coefficient of restitution not necessary)**

**(e) Motion in a circle:**

**(i) angular velocity and angular acceleration**

**(ii)centripetal and centrifugal**

**(f.) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M.):**

**definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion**

**examples of systems that excutes S.H.M**

**period frequency and amplitude of S.H.M.**

**velocity and acceleration of S.H.M**

**energy change in S.H.M**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to :**

**i. identify different types of motion ;**

**ii. differentiate between speed, velocity and acceleration;**

**iii. deduce equations of uniformly accelerated motion;**

**iv. solve problems of motion under gravity;**

**v. interpret distance-time graph and velocity-time graph;**

**vi. compute instantaneous velocity and acceleration**

**vii. establish expressions for the range, maximum height and time of flight of projectiles;**

**viii. solve problems involving projectile motion;**

**ix. interpret Newton's laws of motion;**

**x. compare inertia, mass and force;**

**xi. deduce the relationship between mass and acceleration;**

**xii. solve numerical problems involving impulse and momentum;**

**xiii. interpret the law of conservation of linear momentum;**

**xiv. establish expression for angular velocity, angular**

**acceleration and centripetal force; applications**

**xv. solve numerical problems involving motion in a circle;**

**xvi. establish the relationship between period and frequency;**

**xvii. analyse the energy changes occurring during S.H.M**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**4. Gravitational field**

**(i.) Newton’s Law of universal gravitation**

**(ii.) gravitational potential**

**(iii.) conservative and non conservative fields**

**acceleration due to gravity [g=GM/R]**

**variation of g on the earth’s surface**

**distinction between mass and weight**

**escape velocity**

**parking orbit and weightlessness**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**Identify the expressions for gravitational force between two bodies**

**Apply Newton’s law of universal gravitation;**

**Give examples of conservative and non-conservative and non-conservation fileds;**

**deduce the expression for gravitational field potential.**

**identify the causes of variation of g on the earth’s surface;**

**differentiate between mass amd weight**

**determine escape velocity**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**5. Equilibrium of Forces**

**equilibrium of a particular**

**equilibrium of coplanar forces**

**triangles and polygon of forces**

**Lami’s theorem**

**Principles of moments**

**Momemt of a force**

**Simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue)**

**application**

**conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non –parallel forces**

**resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions, resultant and equilibrant**

**center of gravity and stability**

**Stable, unstable and neutral equilibrate.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate must be able to:**

**i.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of coplanar foirce to solve problems;**

**ii.use triangle and polygon laws of forces to solve equilibrium problems**

**iii.use Lami’s theorem to solve problems**

**iv.analyse the principle of moment of a force**

**v.determine moment of a force and couple**

**vi.describe some applications of moment of a force and couple.**

**vii.apply the conditions for the equilibrium of rigid bodies to solve problems**

**viii.resolve forces into two perpendicular directions;**

**ix.determine the resultant and equilibrium of forces**

**x.differentiate between stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**6. Work Energy and Power**

**(i) definition of work, energy and power**

**(ii) forms of energy**

**(iii) conservation of energy**

**(iv) qualitative treatment between different forms of energy**

**(v) interpretation of area under the force-distance curve**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i differentiate between work, energy and power;**

**ii. compare different forms of energy, giving examples;**

**iii. apply the principle of conservation of energy;**

**iv. examine the transformation between different forms of energy;.**

**v. interpret the area under the force -distance curve.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**7.Friction**

**(i) static and dynamic friction**

**(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.**

**(iii) advantages and disadvantages of friction**

**(iv) reduction of friction qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal viscosity.**

**stoke's law**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between static and dynamic friction**

**ii. determine the coefficient of limiting friction;**

**iii. compare the advantages and disadvantage of friction;**

**iv. suggest ways by which friction can be reduced;**

**v. analyse factors that affect viscosity and terminal velocity;**

**vi. apply stoke's law.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**8.Simple Machines**

**(i) definition of machine**

**(ii) types of machines**

**(iii) mechanical advantage,velocity ratio and efficiency of**

**machines**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. identify different types of machines;**

**ii. solve problems involving simple machines.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**9.Elasticity**

**. (i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke's law and Young's modulus**

**(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring force**

**(iii) work done in springs and elastic Strings**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. interpret force-extension curves; .**

**ii. interpret Hooke's law and Young's modulus of a material; ,**

**iii use spring balance to measure force;**

**iv. determine the work done in spring and elastic strings**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**10.Pressure**

**(a) Atmospheric Pressure**

**(i) definition of atmospheric pressure**

**(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units**

**(iii) measurement of pressure**

**(iv) simple mercury.baromcter,aneroid barometer and manometer.**

**(v) variation of pressure with height**

**(vi) the use of barometer as an altimeter.**

**(b) Pressure in liquids**

**(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = pgh)**

**(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal's Principle)**

**(iii) application**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. recognize the S.I units of pressure;**

**ii. identify pressure measuring instruments;**

**iii. relate the variation of pressure to height;**

**iv. use a barometer as an altimeter.**

**v. determine the relationship between pressure, depth and density;**

**vi. apply the principle of transmission of pressure in liquids to solve problems;**

**vii. determine the application of pressure in liquid;**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**11.Liquids At Rest**

**(i) determination of density of solid and liquids**

**(ii) definition of relative density**

**(iii)upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid**

**(iv)Archimede's principle and law of floatation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. distinguish between density and relative density of substances;**

**ii. determine the upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid**

**iii. apply Archimedes' principle and law of floatation to solve problems**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**12.Temperature and Its Measurement**

**(i) concept of temperature**

**(ii) thermometric properties**

**(iii)calibration of thermometers**

**(iv) temperature scales —Celsius and Kelvin.**

**(v) types of thermometers**

**(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to another**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. identify thermometric properties of materials that'are used for different thermometers;**

**ii. calibrate thermometers;**

**iii. differentiate between temperature scales e.g Clesius and Kelvin.**

**iv. compare the types of thermometers;**

**vi. convert from one scale of temperature to another.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**13. Thermal Expansion**

**(a) Solids**

**(i) definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities**

**(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines**

**(vi) relationship between different expansivities**

**(b) Liquids**

**(i) volume expansivity**

**(ii) real and apparent expansivities**

**(iii) determination of volume expansivity**

**(iv) anomalous expansion of water**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. determine linear and volume expansivities;**

**ii. assess the effects and applications of thermal expansivities**

**iii. determine the relationship between different expansivities.**

**iv. determine volume, apparent, and real expansivities of liquids;**

**v. analyse the anomalous expansion of water.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**14.Gas Laws**

**(i) Boyle's law (PV = constant)**

**(ii) Charle's law ( V/P = constant)**

**(iii) Pressure law ( P/T = constant)**

**(iv) Absolute zero of temperature**

**(v) General gas equation ( PV /T= constant)**

**(vi) Ideal gas equation (Pv=n RT)**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. interpret the gas laws;**

**ii. use expression of these laws to solve numerical problems.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**15.Quantity of Heat**

**(i) heat as a form of energy**

**(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids**

**(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between heat capacity and specific heat capacity;**

**ii. determine heat capacity and specific heat capacity using simple methods;**

**iii. examine some numerical problems.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**16.Change of State**

**(i) latent heat**

**(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;**

**(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling**

**(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points.**

**(v) application in appliances**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;**

**ii. differentiate between melting, evaporation and boiling;**

**iii. examine the effects of pressure and of dissolved substance on boiling and melting points.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**17.Vapours**

**(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours**

**(ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling**

**(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method**

**(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain**

**(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity**

**(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. distinguish between saturated and unsaturated vapours;**

**ii. relate saturated vapour pressure to boiling point;**

**iii. determine S.V.P by barometer tube method**

**iv. differentiate between dew point, humidity and relative humidity;**

**v estimate the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hydrometers.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**18.Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory**

**(a) Molecular nature of matter**

**(i) atoms and molecules**

**(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact**

**(iii) examples and applications.**

**(b)Kinetic Theory**

**(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory**

**(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle's**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between atoms and molecules;**

**ii. use molecular theory to explain Brownian motion, diffusion, surface, tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angle of contact;**

**iii. examine the assumptions of kinetic theory;**

**interpret kinetic theory, the pressure exerted by gases Boyle’s law, Charles law melting, boiling vaporization, change in temperature, evaporation, etc**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**19. Heat Transfer**

**Condition, convetion and radiation as modes of heat transfer**

**Temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux**

**Effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.**

**The conductivites of common materials**

**The thrmos flask Land and sea breeze**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between conduction , convention and radiation as modes of heart transfer;**

**ii. determine temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux**

**iii. assess the effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it;**

**iv. compare the conductivities of commonmaterials**

**v. relate the component part of the working of the thermo flask;**

**vi. different between land and sea breeze.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**20. Waves**

**Production and propagation**

**Wave motion**

**Vibrating systems as source of waves**

**Waves as mode of energy transfer**

**distinction between particle motion and wave motion**

**relationship between frequency wavelength and wave velocity (v=f?)**

**phase difference**

**progressive wave equation e.g y=A sin (2 p(vt+x))/?**

**Classification**

**Types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves**

**Longitudinal and transverse waves**

**Stationery and progressive waves**

**Examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.**

**Chracteristics/Properties**

**Reflection, refractions, diffraction and plane Polarization**

**Superposition of waves e.g interference**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be a ble to**

**i. Interpret wave motion**

**ii. Identify vibrating systems as sources of waves**

**iii. Use waves as a mode of energy transfer;**

**iv. Distinguish between particle motion and wave motion**

**v. Relate frequency and wave length to wave velocity**

**vi. Determine phase difference**

**vii. Use the progressive wave equation to compute basic wave parameters**

**viii. Differentiate between mechanical and electromagnetic waves.**

**ix. Differentiate between longitudinal and transverse waves.**

**x. Distinguish between stationary and progressive waves**

**xi. Indicate the example of waves generated from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank;**

**xii. Differenctiate between reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane polarization of waves.**

**xiii. Analyse the principle of superposition of waves.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**21. Propagation of sound waves**

**the necessity for a material medium**

**speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;**

**reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications**

**disadvantages of echoes and reverberations**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. determine the need for a metrial medium in the propagation of sound waves**

**ii. compare the speed of sound in solids liquid and air**

**iii. relate the effects of temperature and pressure to the speed of sound in air**

**solve problem on echoes, reverberation**

**iv.compare the disadvantages and echoes**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**22. Characteristics of sound waves**

**(i) noise and musical notes**

**(ii) quality, pitch, intensity application and loudness and their application to musical instruments**

**(iii)simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their coloumns [F=L/2Lv(T/M)]**

**acoustic examples of resonance**

**frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**23. Light Energy**

**Source of Light:**

**Natural and artificial source of light**

**Luminous and non-luminous objects**

**Propagation of light**

**Speed frequency and wavelength of light**

**(ii) Formation of shadows and eclipse**

**The pin-hole camera**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. Compare the natural and artificial sources of light**

**ii.Differentiate between luminous and non luminous object**

**iii. Relate the speed, frequency and wavelength of light.**

**iv. Interpret the formation of shadows and eclipse**

**v. Solve problems using the principle of operation of a pin-hole camera**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**24. Reflection of light a Plane and curved surfaces**

**(i) laws of reflection**

**(ii) application of reflection of light**

**(iii) Formation of images by plane concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams**

**(iv) use of the mirror formula**

**[1/f=(1/u)+(1/v)**

**(v) Linear magnification**

**OBEJCTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to**

**i. Interpret the laws of reflection**

**ii. Illustrate the formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirros:**

**iii. Apply the mirror formula to solve optical problems;**

**iv. Determine the linear magnification**

**v. Apply the laws of reflection of light to the working of periscope, kaleidoscope and the sextant.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**25. Refraction of light through**

**(a)Plane and Curved Surface**

**(i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media**

**(ii) laws of refraction**

**(iii) definition of refraction index of a medium**

**(iv) determination of refraction index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law**

**(v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement**

**(vI) critical angle and total internal reflection**

**(b) Glass Prism**

**Use of the minimum deviation formula**

**U=(sin((A+D)/2))/sin(A/2)**

**Type of lenses**

**Use of formula 1/f = (1/u) + (1/v)**

**magnification**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. interpret the laws of refelction ;**

**ii. determine the refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law;**

**iii.determine the refractive index using the principle of real and apparent depth**

**iv. determine the conditions necessary for total internal refelction;**

**v. examine the use of periscope, prism, binoculars, optical fibre.**

**vi.Apply the principles of total internal reflection to the formula of mirage**

**vii. Use of lens formula and ray diagrams to solve optical numerical problems**

**viii.Determine the magnification of an image**

**ix.Calculate the refractive index of a glass prism suing minimum deviation formula**

**TOPIC/CONTENT/NOTEs**

**26. Optical Instruments**

**(i) the principles of miscroscopes, telescopes, projections, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required)**

**(ii) power of a lens**

**(iii) Angular magnification**

**(iv) site defects and their corrections**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to**

**i. apply the principles of operation of optical instruments to solve problems**

**ii.distinguish between the human eye and the cameras**

**iii. calculate the power of a lens**

**iv. determine the angular magnification of optical instruments**

**v. determine the near and far points**

**vi. detect sight defects and their corrections.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**27 (a) dispersion of light and colours**

**Dispersion of white light by a triangular prism**

**Production of pure spectrum**

**Colour mixing by addition and subtraction**

**Colour of objects abd colour filters.**

**(b) electromagnetic spectrum**

**(i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to**

**i. Relate the expression for gravitational force between two bodies**

**ii. Apply Newton’s laws of universal gravitation**

**iii. Identify primary colours and obtain secondary colour by mixing.**

**iv. Deduces why objects have colours**

**v. Analyse colours using colour filters**

**vi. Analayse the electromagnetic spectrum in relation to their wavelengths, sources, detection and uses.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**28. Electrostatics**

**(i) existence of ositive and negative charges in matter**

**(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction**

**(iii) electroscope**

**(iv) Coulomb’s inverse square law electric field and potential**

**Electric field and potential**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. Identify charges**

**ii. Examine uses of an electronscope**

**iii.apply coulomb’s square law of electrostatic to solve problems**

**iv. deduce expression for electric field and potential**

**v. identify electric field flux patterns of isolated and interacting charges**

**vi. analyze the distribution of charges on a conductor and how it is used I lightening conductors.**

**Conductor and how it is used in lightening conductors**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**29. Capacitors**

**Functions of capacitors**

**Parallel plate capacitors**

**Capacitance of a capacitors**

**The relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates [C=3A/d]**

**Capacitors in series and parallel**

**Energy stored in a capacitor**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. determine uses of capacitors**

**ii. analyse parallel plate capacitors**

**iii. determine the capacitance of a capacitor**

**iv. analyse the factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor**

**v. solve problems involving the arrangement of capacitor**

**vi. determine the energy stored in capacitors**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**30. Electric Cells**

**(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;**

**(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)**

**(iii) lead acid accumulator and Nickel Iron (Nife) Lithium Ion and Mercury cadmium**

**(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required**

**(v) arrangement of cell**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. identify the defects of the simple voltaic cell and their corrected;**

**ii. compare different types of cells including solar cell**

**iii. compare the advantages of lead-acid and Nikel iron accuulator**

**iv. citance of a capacitor**

**v. solve problems involving series and parallel combination of cells**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**31. Current Electricity**

**(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost volt**

**(ii) Ohm’s law**

**(iii) measurement of resistance**

**(iv) meter bridge**

**(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination**

**the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a cell.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to:**

**i. differentiate between emf p.d current and internal resistance of a cell.**

**ii. apply ohm’s law to solve problems**

**iii. Use meter bridge to calculate resistance**

**iv. Compute effective total resistance of both parallel and series arrangement of resistors**

**v. determine the resistivity and the conductivity of a conductor**

**vi. measure emf current and internal resistance of a cell using the potentiometer.**

**32.Electrical Energy and Power**

**(i) concepts of electrical energy and power**

**(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and power**

**(iii) electric power transmission**

**(iv) heating effects of electric current.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. apply the expressions of electrical energy and power to solve problems;**

**ii. analyse how power is transmitted from the power station to the consumer;**

**iii. identify the heating effects, of current and its uses.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**33.Magnets and Magnetic Fields**

**(i) natural and artificial magnets**

**(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel**

**(iii) methods of making magnets and demagnetization**

**(iv) concept of magnetic field**

**(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet**

**(vi) magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid**

**(vii) properties of the earth's magnetic Meld; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination**

**(viii) flux and flux density**

**(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth's surface**

**(x) applications: earth's magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. give examples of natural and artificial magnets**

**ii. differentiate between the magnetic properties of soft iron and steel;**

**iii. identify the various methods of making magnets and demagnetizing magnets;**

**iv. describe how to keep a magnet from losing its magnetism;**

**v. determine the flux pattern exhibited when two magnets are placed together pole to pole;**

**vi. determine the flux of a current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid including the polarity of the solenoid;**

**vii. determine the flux pattern of magnetic placed in the earth's magnetic fields;**

**viii. identify the magnetic elements of the earth's flux;**

**ix. determine the variation of earth's magnetic field on the earth's surface;**

**x. examine the applications of the earth's magnetic field.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**34.Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in a Magnetic Field**

**quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current carrying conductors.**

**Force on a charge moving in a magnetic field**

**The dc motor**

**Electromagnets**

**Carbon microphone**

**Moving coil and moving iron instruments**

**Conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. determine the direction of force on a current carrying conductor using Fleming’s left-hand rule:**

**ii. interpret the attractive and repulsive forces between two parallel current carrying conductors using diagrams:**

**iii. determine the relationship between the force, magnetif field strength, velocity and the angle though which the charge enters the field**

**iv. interpret the working of the d. c. motor**

**v. analyse the principle of electromagnets give examples of its application**

**vi.compare moving iron and moving coil instruments**

**vii. converts a galvanometer into an ammeter or a voltmeter**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction**

**Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction**

**Factors affecting induced emf**

**Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy**

**A.c and d.c generators**

**Transformers**

**The induction coil**

**(b) Inductance**

**i. Explanation of inductance’**

**ii. Unit of inductor**

**iii. Energy stored ina n inductance**

**E= 1I2 L/2**

**iv. Application/uses of inductors**

**c.Eddy Current**

**i. reduction of eddy current**

**ii. application of eddy current**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates should be able to:**

**i. interpret the laws of electromagnetic induction**

**ii. identify the factors affecting induced emf;**

**iii. recognize how Lenz’ law illustrates the principle of conservation of energy**

**iv. interpret the diagrammatic setup of A.C. generators;**

**v. indentify the types of transformer**

**vi. examine principles of operation of transformers**

**vii. assess the functions of an induction coil**

**viii. draw some conclusions from the principles of operation of an induction coil**

**ix. interpret the inductance of an inductor**

**x. recognize units of inductance of an inductor**

**xi. calculate the effective total inductance in series and parallel arrangement.**

**xii. deduce the expression for the energy stored in an inductor;**

**xiii. examine the applications of inductors**

**xiv. describe the method by which eddy current losses can be reduced.**

**xv. determine the ways by which eddy current can be used.**

**TOPICS/CONTENTS/NOTES**

**36. Simple A.C. Circuits**

**i. Explanation of a.c current and voltage**

**ii. Peak and r.m.s values**

**iii. A.C. sources connected to a resistor**

**iv. A.C. sources connected to a capacitor-capacitive reactance**

**v. A.C. sources connected to an inductor-inductive reactance**

**vi. Series R-L-C circuits**

**vii. Vector diagram**

**viii. Reactance and impedance of alternative quantities**

**ix. Effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits**

**x. Resonance and resonance frequency**

**[F0 =1/(2pvLC)**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to**

**i. identify A.C. current of and d. d. voltage**

**ii. differentiate between the peak and r.m.s. values of a.c**

**iii. determine the phase difference between current and voltage**

**iv. nterpret series R-L-C circuit**

**v. analyse vector diagrams**

**vi. calculate the effective voltage reactance and impedance**

**vii. recognize the condition by which the circuit is at resonance**

**viii. determine the resonant frequency of R-L-C arrangement**

**ix. determine the instantaneous power, average power and the power factor in a circuit.**

**37. Conduction of Electricity through liquid**

**(a) liquids**

**(i) electrolytes and non electrolytes**

**(ii) concept of electrolysis**

**(iii) Faradays law of electroysis**

**(iv) application of electrolysis e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.**

**(b) gases**

**(i) discharges through gases(quantitative treatment only)**

**(ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to**

**i. distinguish between electrolytes and non-electrolytes**

**ii. analyse the processes of electrolytes**

**iii. apply faraday’s laws of electrolysis to solve problems**

**iv. analyse discharge through gases**

**v. determine some applications/uses of conduction of electricity through gases.**

**TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES**

**38. Elementary Modern Physics**

**(i) models of the atom and their limitations**

**(ii) elementary structure of the atom**

**(iii) energy level and spectra**

**(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions**

**(v) einstein’s equation and stopping potential**

**(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects**

**(vii) simple method of production of x-rays**

**(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays.**

**(xiii) halflife and decay constant**

**(xiv) simple ideas of production energy by fission**

**(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Eintein’s Energy equation[?E=?Mc^2**

**(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)**

**(xvii) electron diffraction**

**(xviii) the uncertainty principle**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidate should be able to**

**i. identify the models of the atom and write their limitation**

**ii. describe elementary structure of the atom**

**iii. differentiate between the energy levels and spectra of atom**

**iv. compare thermionic emission and photoelectric effects**

**v. apply Einstein’s equation to solve problems of photoelectric effect**

**vi. calculate the stopping potential**

**vii. relate some application of thermionic emission and photoelectric effects**

**viii. interpret the process involved in the production of x-rays**

**ix. identify come properties and application of x-rays**

**x. analyse elementary radioactivity.**

**xi. distinguish between stable and unstable nuclei**

**xii. Identify isotopes of an element**

**xiii. compare the properties of alpha beta and gamma rays**

**xiv. relate half life and decay constant of a radioactive element**

**xv. determine the binding energy, mass defect and Einsteins’s energy equation**

**xvi. analyse wave particle duality**

**xvii. Solve some numerical problems based on the uncertainty principle**

**TOPIC/COMMENT/NOTES**

**39. Introductory Electronics**

**(i) distinguish between metals semi conductors and insulators(elementary knowledge of band gap is required)**

**(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductor**

**(iii)uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification.**

**(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors**

**(v) elementary knowledge of diode and transistors**

**(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification**

**OBJECTIVES**

**Candidates ’should be able to**

**i. differentiate between conducturs, semi conductors and insulators**

**ii. distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors**

**iii.distinguish between electron and hole carrier**

**iv. distinguish between n-type and p-type semi-conductor**

**vi. analyse diodes to rectification and transistor to amplification**

**Physics**

**RECOMMENDED TEXTS**

**1.Okeke, P. N and Anyakoha, M. W (2000) Senior Secondary School Physics,**

**Lagos: Pacific Printers**

**2.Olumuyionwa A. and Ogunkoya O. O (1992) Comprehensive Certificate**

**Physics,Ibadan: University Press Pic.**

**Ike, E. E (2006) Essential Principles of Physics, Aba Enic Publishers**

**Ike, E. E (2005) Numerical Problems and Solutions in Physics, F = Ma Enic**

**Publishers, Aba**

**5.Ike, E. E. (2009) Introductory University Physics Enic Publishers, Jos**

**6.Abbott, A. F. Principle of Physics (Fifth Edition) Heinemann Educational**

**Publishere Halley Court, Jordan Education Limited.**

**7. Anyakoha M. W. (2010) New School Pyhsics for Senior Secondary Schools (Third Edition) Africana First Publishers Pic**

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